Some commentators originally suggested that affiliate links work best in the context of the information contained within the website itself. For instance, if a website contains information pertaining to publishing a website, an affiliate link leading to a merchant's internet service provider (ISP) within that website's content would be appropriate. If a website contains information pertaining to sports, an affiliate link leading to a sporting goods website may work well within the context of the articles and information about sports. The goal, in this case, is to publish quality information on the website and provide context-oriented links to related merchant's websites.
Companies like Uber and Lyft offer a great opportunity to make some quick cash. You'll need a clean driving record, a fairly new car and the authorization to work wherever it is that you live. If you have all of those things, you can work when it's feasible for you, whether that's in the middle of the day during rush hour, or in the wee hours of the night on a weekend. The choice is yours.
Note: I think the line where readers will push back probably will vary from blog to blog depending upon their readership. For example here on ProBlogger I get a little more negative feedback from readers on affiliate promotions. I suspect ProBlogger readers are a little more tuned into the issue and suspicious of some of the affiliate marketing that goes on around the web.
Udemy.com – Udemy is an online training platform where “instructors” can create courses and sell them to “students”. There are some extremely high-quality courses on Udemy created by high-quality instructors who really have made a lot of money online, but there are a lot of very low-quality courses as well. Most of the higher quality courses are quite expensive, sometimes exceeding $100. While the training might be good, the training on Wealthy Affiliate is excellent as well, plus you get all the tools, community, and support included as well. Once again, I believe Wealthy Affiliate is the better option.

The premium Wealthy Affiliate membership is where you get access to absolutely everything. If you’re serious about building an online business, I have never in my 8 years in this industry seen such an amazing community full of help, tools, and resources. I’ve been a member at several other online marketing sites, but this one blows the rest of them out of the water.


Websites consisting mostly of affiliate links have previously held a negative reputation for underdelivering quality content. In 2005 there were active changes made by Google, where certain websites were labeled as "thin affiliates".[34] Such websites were either removed from Google's index or were relocated within the results page (i.e., moved from the top-most results to a lower position). To avoid this categorization, affiliate marketer webmasters must create quality content on their websites that distinguishes their work from the work of spammers or banner farms, which only contain links leading to merchant sites.
In November 1994, CDNow launched its BuyWeb program. CDNow had the idea that music-oriented websites could review or list albums on their pages that their visitors might be interested in purchasing. These websites could also offer a link that would take visitors directly to CDNow to purchase the albums. The idea for remote purchasing originally arose from conversations with music label Geffen Records in the fall of 1994. The management at Geffen wanted to sell its artists' CD's directly from its website but did not want to implement this capability itself. Geffen asked CDNow if it could design a program where CDNow would handle the order fulfillment. Geffen realized that CDNow could link directly from the artist on its website to Geffen's website, bypassing the CDNow home page and going directly to an artist's music page.[14]

I concluded that having read a product review, people felt more informed to make a purchasing decision. As a result, if they did click a link after reading the review they were more likely to buy the product. Those clicking on the top link seemed to be more in a ‘surfing’ mode. They clicked on the link less because they wanted to buy it but more out of interest to learn more. Some bought the product and some bought other products once they were ‘in the door’ at Amazon.


Blogging is something that requires patience, persistence and discipline. It may mean writing everyday for over a year before you really start to see any money from it. There are exceptions to the rule, but from my dealings with other bloggers, it seems to be pretty common to spend one or even two years building your blog, your brand and your authority, before making any serious amount of money.
Regardless if you need to earn some fast cash or we're just talking about making money in the grand scheme of things, there's an important psychology that needs to be mentioned before getting into the strategies. If you study Freud's model of the mind, you'll discover the Psychic Apparatus. It's the three-part construct in your mind that controls all of your behavior.
Rake yards in autumn if you live where leaves fall. Grab a rake and a few large trash bags and go from house to house offering your services. Ask your neighbors what areas of their lawn they want raked and where you should put the leaves, like on the curb for collection or dumped in a wooded area behind their house. Rake leaves into a large pile, then stuff them into a trash bag and tie it closed.

Cost per mille requires only that the publisher make the advertising available on his or her website and display it to the page visitors in order to receive a commission. Pay per click requires one additional step in the conversion process to generate revenue for the publisher: A visitor must not only be made aware of the advertisement but must also click on the advertisement to visit the advertiser's website.
Shovel driveways and sidewalks in the winter if it snows in your area. Pick a shovel that’s lightweight yet sturdy and has a non-stick blade. Come up with a shoveling strategy, whether it’s working from the top of the driveway to the bottom or going in diagonal lines across the driveway. Push the snow from side to side and only pick it up when you need to avoid wearing yourself out fast.[9]
Unfortunately, the 2Checkout dashboard is a bit limited in scope, making it difficult to get any metrics on conversion rates or even sorting by commission payouts. The workaround is to go to the Avangate store, which does list their best-selling products, and then search for these on the affiliate dashboard. That being said, 2Checkout does offer products from more than 4,000 different vendors, making it the leading affiliate network for software and digital products.

Recent corporate changes and folding 2Checkout into a larger company that is involved in payment processing and e-commerce means that the affiliate program can sometimes feel somewhat neglected. But the ability to generate custom coupon codes and the comprehensive knowledge base make 2Checkout a good option for experienced affiliates with an established user base. But if you’re just entering the affiliate field for the first time, 2Checkout might not be where you want to start.
Take good pictures. Some of the options below don’t require you to actually take the picture and sell the product, but for the ones that do, make sure you take a clear picture that makes your product stand out from the others.  If you’re going to be taking a lot of pictures, set up a small “studio-like” area in your home with a backdrop and proper lighting to really make your pictures come across as professional. And of course, you’ll want a good camera too.
Since the emergence of affiliate marketing, there has been little control over affiliate activity. Unscrupulous affiliates have used spam, false advertising, forced clicks (to get tracking cookies set on users' computers), adware, and other methods to drive traffic to their sponsors. Although many affiliate programs have terms of service that contain rules against spam, this marketing method has historically proven to attract abuse from spammers.
…But doesn’t being an affiliate for Wealthy Affiliate make me just another one of those affiliate marketers who is being biased and just trying to make a buck off of you? Well, ummmm…. Sort of! But at least I’m honest about it, right? I hope you give me a chance by continuing to read this Wealthy Affiliate review. I have no intention of making this one big sales pitch. I just want to provide you with the information and allow you to make your own decision. If I get a commission, great! If not, that’s ok too. Here’s a screenshot of my Wealthy Affiliate profile.
Affiliates were among the earliest adopters of pay per click advertising when the first pay-per-click search engines emerged during the end of the 1990s. Later in 2000 Google launched its pay per click service, Google AdWords, which is responsible for the widespread use and acceptance of pay per click as an advertising channel. An increasing number of merchants engaged in pay per click advertising, either directly or via a search marketing agency, and realized that this space was already occupied by their affiliates. Although this situation alone created advertising channel conflicts and debates between advertisers and affiliates, the largest issue concerned affiliates bidding on advertisers names, brands, and trademarks.[39] Several advertisers began to adjust their affiliate program terms to prohibit their affiliates from bidding on those type of keywords. Some advertisers, however, did and still do embrace this behavior, going so far as to allow, or even encourage, affiliates to bid on any term, including the advertiser's trademarks.

…But doesn’t being an affiliate for Wealthy Affiliate make me just another one of those affiliate marketers who is being biased and just trying to make a buck off of you? Well, ummmm…. Sort of! But at least I’m honest about it, right? I hope you give me a chance by continuing to read this Wealthy Affiliate review. I have no intention of making this one big sales pitch. I just want to provide you with the information and allow you to make your own decision. If I get a commission, great! If not, that’s ok too. Here’s a screenshot of my Wealthy Affiliate profile.

One big difference between SkimLinks and VigLinks, however, is that once you’re approved by the company, you can choose to work with any merchant or program on its platform. SkimLinks has also published a white paper discussing its partnership with Buzzfeed, giving SkimLinks a lot of credibility. SkimLinks also has a higher tier of vetted merchants called “Preferred Partner” and “VIP” that both pay higher commissions than standard merchants.


Yes, there are many drop shippers within Wealthy Affiliate. What you promote at the end of the day is up to you, whether you are dropshipping, completely ad drive using platforms like Adsense or Mediavine, affiliate marketing, or running an ecommerce store, Wealthy Affiliate can facilitate and help you with ALL aspects of your business. Not just the education, but the websites/hosting, research and development, mentoring and networking, live weekly classes (they just had a month of ecommerce training), and of course your ability to get help when you ned it.
My name is Jamie Spencer and I have spent the past 5 years building money making blogs. After growing tired of the 9-5, commuting and never seeing my family I decided that I wanted to make some changes and launched my first blog. Since then I have launched lots of successful niche blogs and after selling my survivalist blog I decided to teach other people how to do the same.
In April 2008 the State of New York inserted an item in the state budget asserting sales tax jurisdiction over Amazon.com sales to residents of New York, based on the existence of affiliate links from New York–based websites to Amazon.[45] The state asserts that even one such affiliate constitutes Amazon having a business presence in the state, and is sufficient to allow New York to tax all Amazon sales to state residents. Amazon challenged the amendment and lost at the trial level in January 2009. The case is currently making its way through the New York appeals courts.
File-Sharing: Web sites that host directories of music, movies, games and other software. Users upload content to file-hosting sites and then post descriptions of the material and their download links on directory sites. Uploaders are paid by the file-hosting sites based on the number of times their files are downloaded. The file-hosting sites sell premium download access to the files to the general public. The websites that host the directory services sell advertising and do not host the files themselves.

You will want a website, that is provided for you within Wealthy Affiliate on their top tier hosting. You get this included in your membership. A website is important as it is the foundation for your business (your storefront so to speak). The process is not technical these days so don’t be scared by the idea of “creating a website”. You are going to be just fine.
StudioPress itself is somewhat of a niche product as it is targeted to existing WordPress users who found setting up and managing a WordPress site too difficult or time-consuming. StudioPress prides itself on being easy to use, but their main claim to fame is that their hosted websites are “faster and more secure” than other WordPress hosting companies as well as using the “Genesis framework” which is supposedly more SEO friendly than other WordPress builds.

In 1994, Tobin launched a beta version of PC Flowers & Gifts on the Internet in cooperation with IBM, who owned half of Prodigy.[10] By 1995 PC Flowers & Gifts had launched a commercial version of the website and had 2,600 affiliate marketing partners on the World Wide Web. Tobin applied for a patent on tracking and affiliate marketing on January 22, 1996, and was issued U.S. Patent number 6,141,666 on Oct 31, 2000. Tobin also received Japanese Patent number 4021941 on Oct 5, 2007, and U.S. Patent number 7,505,913 on Mar 17, 2009, for affiliate marketing and tracking.[11] In July 1998 PC Flowers and Gifts merged with Fingerhut and Federated Department Stores.[12]


Regardless if you need to earn some fast cash or we're just talking about making money in the grand scheme of things, there's an important psychology that needs to be mentioned before getting into the strategies. If you study Freud's model of the mind, you'll discover the Psychic Apparatus. It's the three-part construct in your mind that controls all of your behavior.
Affiliate marketing has increased in prominence with the internet age. Amazon popularized the practice by creating an affiliate marketing program where websites and bloggers put links to the Amazon page for a product being reviewed or discussed in order to receive advertising fees when a purchase is made. In this sense, affiliate marketing is essentially a pay for performance marketing program where the act of selling a consumer on a product is outsourced across a potentially vast network.
That being said, LinkConnector’s platform looks and feels outdated and is rather clumsily designed. Their dashboard also makes it difficult to find “hot” products or compare conversion rates, leaving affiliates somewhat in the dark about which products to choose. Ironically, despite their low-quality website, they offer some of the best customer service in the affiliate space.
Complete errands or tasks for the elderly. Older people often need help with buying groceries, cleaning their home, performing home maintenance, and paying bills. To find clients, contact your local community center or church to find out if anyone needs help. Additionally, you might post an ad in your local classifieds or talk to people you know to find out if they know someone who needs help.[5]
Ever since the idea of online auctions came into existence, the online selling market has been on the rise. Many are interested, but don’t know how to get started. There are still all kinds of ways to make money by selling online, whether you’re selling what you already have or buying and selling like a store. Before we get started, here are a few general tips when selling anything online:
However, one day I had a reader offer to write a book review for me. I knew the reader so I was confident the review would be OK to publish. As with all my reviews, it had an affiliate link to Amazon in it. I was a little skeptical about whether the review would convert. I thought my readers might not respond as well to a stranger’s review of the book. I was wrong.
Colmex Pro is the leading European Regulated CFD Broker. Offering Tier 2 CFD’s, as well as Live Equities, Indices, Commodities, Futures, and Forex, Colmex Pro offers nearly every investment vehicle available on the US Stock Market to international day traders. Coupled with their partner’s educational packages and trade room access Colmex Pro offers investors the best opportunity to grow and learn how to day trade successfully. CPA up to $1000

The primary purpose of any review, including this review of Wealthy Affiliate, is to help you decide if you should or should not sign up or purchase something. For starters, since you can sign up for a free account at Wealthy Affiliate, I think that is a no-brainer way to go. Don’t take my word or anyone else’s word for it, go see for yourself! There is no credit card required or anything like that. It’s completely free to try.
Check with your local bank to see if they're giving away cash bonuses for opening up accounts. Banks run promotions like this all the time, so grab some real cash quickly if you're in need. It won't break the bank (no pun intended) but it will give you a quick $50 or $100 -- maybe even more -- when you really need it. You might need to deposit a minimum amount of cash (usually in the thousands) in order to qualify for these types of accounts (but not always).
26. Services – You can offer a paid service, such as life coaching, blog coaching, goal setting or financial planning. Just be sure to investigate all the legal implications and make sure you’re not claiming to be a professional if you’re not one. With a service like this, you’re basically using your blog to sell yourself. You’ll need to convince people that you’re worth buying and then be able to back up your claims once they purchase your service.
Is this because WP is now blocking outside adds on free accounts? WP recent advised users that ads may appear on free accounts. I saw that WP has a plugin just for Amazon posts, but any plugin requires a business account. In looking at the pay-to-play WP account details, it looks like one has to buy the second level account in order to “monetize your website”. 

Make money selling handmade crafts if you love being creative. Turn your hobby into a side business. Whether it’s homemade candles, friendship bracelets, or pretty cards, sell your crafts at a local craft fair, farmer’s market, or online on Etsy. Price your goods by considering how much you spent on materials and how long it took you to make each product.[7]
Wash cars or bikes if you have a big enough driveway. Gather some sponges or old rags, towels, car washing liquid, a big bucket, and a hose and set up a washing station in your driveway for a few hours on the weekend. Scrub each vehicle, focusing on any dirty spots, rinse it thoroughly, and buff it dry with a microfiber towel. Charge $10 to $20 per vehicle.[10]
Cost per action/sale methods require that referred visitors do more than visit the advertiser's website before the affiliate receives a commission. The advertiser must convert that visitor first. It is in the best interest of the affiliate to send the most closely targeted traffic to the advertiser as possible to increase the chance of a conversion. The risk and loss are shared between the affiliate and the advertiser.
The ego is the driver making the decisions. It decides between the devil (the id) and the angel (the super-ego) on either shoulder (yes, all those cartoons you've ever seen are partly true). We have voices in our mind, and it's up to the ego to decide which one to fulfill. Its goal is to satisfy the id in some way while also attending to the super-ego.
You are in the right Place if you join Wealthy Affiliate a lot of Education on all thing about the internet Business, it’s the place to be. It’s really cheap at $49 dollars a month. That a good price for Education. the only thing cheaper is my $36 a month with help, not a lot Education. If you know it. It’s the right place to be for you on price. Even I am a Wealthy Affiliate Customer, I watch and learn what the people are doing and how they are a thing for my advantage, on the Internet. Remember it’s about the of your niche something that you are very passionate about or taste It’s – it in love with it, Most of all when you talk about it, It rolls right out of your mouth. If you have the love for making money, you can do it. You do not need employees, a building. Just your house with Computer.
Is this because WP is now blocking outside adds on free accounts? WP recent advised users that ads may appear on free accounts. I saw that WP has a plugin just for Amazon posts, but any plugin requires a business account. In looking at the pay-to-play WP account details, it looks like one has to buy the second level account in order to “monetize your website”.
An e-commerce merchant that wants to be able to reach a wider base of internet users and shoppers may hire an affiliate. An affiliate could be the owner of multiple websites or email marketing lists; therefore, the more websites or email lists that an affiliate has, the wider his network. The affiliate that has been hired would then communicate and promote the products offered on the ecommerce platform to his network. The affiliate does this by implementing banner ads, text ads and/or links on their multiple owned websites or via email to their clientele. Advertisement could be in the form of articles, videos, images, etc., which are used to draw an audience’s attention to a service or product.

Udemy.com – Udemy is an online training platform where “instructors” can create courses and sell them to “students”. There are some extremely high-quality courses on Udemy created by high-quality instructors who really have made a lot of money online, but there are a lot of very low-quality courses as well. Most of the higher quality courses are quite expensive, sometimes exceeding $100. While the training might be good, the training on Wealthy Affiliate is excellent as well, plus you get all the tools, community, and support included as well. Once again, I believe Wealthy Affiliate is the better option.
Since the emergence of affiliate marketing, there has been little control over affiliate activity. Unscrupulous affiliates have used spam, false advertising, forced clicks (to get tracking cookies set on users' computers), adware, and other methods to drive traffic to their sponsors. Although many affiliate programs have terms of service that contain rules against spam, this marketing method has historically proven to attract abuse from spammers.
And I’m not the only one. More people than ever are succeeding with Wealthy Affiliate. Most people who join don’t even promote Wealthy Affiliate at all. Instead, Wealthy Affiliate teaches you how to promote any number of products or services across the web in just about any niche. If you do want to promote Wealthy Affiliate, by all means, it’s a great affiliate program that can easily earn you a full-time living! Here’s the last paycheck I received from Wealthy Affiliate. The amount is actually higher than what is posted in the chart above due to some yearly subscriptions and a few other things that I got paid extra for.

Start a photography business and sell your photos online. If you have a nice DSLR camera and take good photos, do photography sessions or take photos of events, like parties and weddings. As another option, create fine art photos that people may want to hang on their walls, or take stock photos to sell online on sites like iStock Photo, Shutterstock, or Alamy.[12]
The fact of the matter is, if you put forth the effort and apply what is taught to you in the training (and follow the 4 steps to success methodology), you are going to come out on top. Sure, it will take some hard work. Anything worth working for takes, WORK…and owning your own, successful long term business should be one of those goals that you have.
The average commission rate is $58 per the Shopify website. Shopify’s commissions are paid according to different metrics. For instance, if a referral signs up for the Shopify Plus enterprise plan (the highest tier), the payout is a flat $2,000. Referrals who sign up for the standard plan earn a $598 commission. The payout for a Basic account is $58. Commissions are calculated as follows: you will earn two times the monthly rate but only two months after the user has been a paying customer.

19. eBay – Of course you can’t read an article about making money online that doesn’t mention eBay. You can start an eBay store and get serious about it or you can just sell some stuff to declutter your home. Either way, I’ve made my fair share from selling on eBay and it’s still a popular way to earn money. If you decide to start an actual eBay store, you’ll want to find a drop-ship business like Doba that will store and ship items straight to your customers so you don’t have to deal with an inventory.


1. Yes, you don’t need to know a thing about affiliate marketing. In fact, if you have not been predisposed to training already sometimes that can be a good thing. There is a lot of misinformation out there about affiliate marketing, which leads people more often than not to failure. Wealthy Affiliate can and is consistently helping the absolutely newbie. You are going to learn the foundational building blocks and in the first few lessons alone you are going to have your very own niche website up and running.
VigLink works a bit differently than other affiliate programs in that it is specifically designed for bloggers. Instead of affiliates picking and choosing which merchants to work with, VigLink uses dynamic links that automatically change to work with merchants that VigLink has determined are offering the highest conversation rates and/or commissions at any given moment.
Hi, Jamie! Very good list. I needed something like this for 2018 so that I know what to target in the future blogs I create. As for now, I’m comfortable using SiteGround affiliate network and it’s pretty good actually. Their hosting service is pretty much the best considered its price. I’ve tried others but SiteGround stands out. I’ll also try new affiliate networks, something from the list you have just provided. I think Amazon is too saturated at the moment, and I need a better network. 2018 will be interesting indeed.
If you want the full story, you can check out my about me page (it’s a pretty cool story if I may say so myself). The short version is that I got started with affiliate marketing back in 2009 and was able to go full-time in 2011. I now own more than a dozen websites in several different niche industries. You can see a listing of most of my sites at RogersConcepts.com. 

Yes, it costs money, but starting any business takes an investment. The key is to invest wisely, be frugal, and make sure you’re investing in the right things. With Wealthy Affiliate Premium you are literally getting absolutely everything you’ll need to start a successful business online. From the training to the web building tools to the website hosting, backup, security, and support – it’s all there in one place at a very reasonable price.
It’s free to join the SellHealth affiliate program, though you do have to apply and be accepted before you can start promoting their products.  Once you’re accepted, you’ll have access to a number of tools, graphics, banners and more that you can use to promote SellHealth products.  The sales are actually made at company-owned Websites, which look professional and handle all of the selling. Commissions vary, but the base rate is 30% of all sales and upsells, and SellHealth says you can earn up to $350 per sale.
In February 2000, Amazon announced that it had been granted a patent[18] on components of an affiliate program. The patent application was submitted in June 1997, which predates most affiliate programs, but not PC Flowers & Gifts.com (October 1994), AutoWeb.com (October 1995), Kbkids.com/BrainPlay.com (January 1996), EPage (April 1996), and several others.[13]

In the case of cost per mille/click, the publisher is not concerned about whether a visitor is a member of the audience that the advertiser tries to attract and is able to convert, because at this point the publisher has already earned his commission. This leaves the greater, and, in case of cost per mille, the full risk and loss (if the visitor cannot be converted) to the advertiser.
SkimLinks works very similarly to VigLinks in that it is designed for bloggers who don’t want to do a lot of hands-on work to participate in an affiliate program. SkimLinks also works much like VigLinks in that it uses a plugin or script to create dynamic links in your content to send visitors to higher paying offers from merchants. SkimLinks claims to work with over 24,000 merchants/advertisers.
There is no autoresponder included. There are many affordable autoresponder services out there that you can get when you need it, but building an email list definitely should not be the starting point for your business. That will come down the road, typically when your website is getting a sustainable source of traffic. You will be learning all about this as you move through the elite, industry leading training at Wealthy Affiliate.
Shopify is a very popular site building platform for people interested in building eCommerce stores. It has been around for the past few years and seen significant growth in its user base over this time. You can earn a staggering 200% per sale for every new customer you refer to them, which means that there is up to $2400 per new customer on offer.
Cost per click was more common in the early days of affiliate marketing but has diminished in use over time due to click fraud issues very similar to the click fraud issues modern search engines are facing today. Contextual advertising programs are not considered in the statistic pertaining to the diminished use of cost per click, as it is uncertain if contextual advertising can be considered affiliate marketing.
If you add up all the services you get, the premium membership is a steal. For example, you’ll notice they include unlimited keyword research with a membership. Other paid keyword research tools sell for $49 or more just by themselves. Add in website hosting, and there’s another $10 / mo. Add on the website security package, and there’s another $10 per month (I’ve paid as much as $29 / mo just for website security). Just based on those things alone, Wealthy Affiliate is a great deal with all of the resources and tools you need in one convenient place. Not to mention all of the training, tutorials, and support that is included with the membership.
One big difference between SkimLinks and VigLinks, however, is that once you’re approved by the company, you can choose to work with any merchant or program on its platform. SkimLinks has also published a white paper discussing its partnership with Buzzfeed, giving SkimLinks a lot of credibility. SkimLinks also has a higher tier of vetted merchants called “Preferred Partner” and “VIP” that both pay higher commissions than standard merchants.

Really good article with some great tips. Affiliate marketing has the potential to earn lots of money and I'm hoping I can make it happen. I have tried the matched betting and it DEFINITELY works. The one thing I would say is that you need to check that any bets have been accepted by the bookmaker. I have had on occasion bets which look like they have been accepted but don't register in my account. Always go into your account and check outstanding bets or your bet history.

A relative newcomer to the affiliate space, MaxBounty was founded in 2004 in Ottawa, Canada. MaxBounty claims to be the only affiliate network built specifically for affiliates. MaxBounty is exclusively a CPA (Cost Per Action/Acquisition) company that doesn’t deal with ad banners or the like, just customer links that the publisher (blogger) chooses where to place on their website.
Unfortunately, the 2Checkout dashboard is a bit limited in scope, making it difficult to get any metrics on conversion rates or even sorting by commission payouts. The workaround is to go to the Avangate store, which does list their best-selling products, and then search for these on the affiliate dashboard. That being said, 2Checkout does offer products from more than 4,000 different vendors, making it the leading affiliate network for software and digital products.
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